Great news – the new aluminum MacBooks will be arriving in Brazil sometime next week! It was a long delay, but I’m glad they’re finally coming!
I’m very disappointed that tomorrow it will be a month and a half since the next-gen MacBook’s announcements and they still haven’t arrived in Brazil. As somebody who works daily with technology, programming, etc, I recognize the power of the Mac and love programming for it, working with it, and using it to its maximum extent.
I was extremely excited to try out the new MacBooks after their announcement on October 14th and figured that it should take about two weeks for the notebooks to get here. Then the two weeks passed, a month passed, and tomorrow, a whole six weeks will have passed and whenever I walk into any of the Apple Authorized Resellers nearby, they tell me that there is no expected date for the new MacBooks’ arrival.
Sure, Brazil is still considered an emerging economy, but that doesn’t necessarily mean it has to be stuck with old technology, one that is being sold for $999 in the United States and about $600 more than the previous version here in Brazil.
I sincerely hope that Apple will reconsider the delay that occurs after product releases in locations outside the United States and the European Union. In fact, I wrote about this issue on my blog, which can be read by following this link: http://theunixgeek.blogspot.com/2008/11/one-month-later.html . I also plan on publishing this text so that the problem can become more visible.
Ah, the old UNIX adage: everything is either a file or process.
Let’s take a closer look at the Linux filesystem and forget about processes for now.
Files can either be regular data-holding files, directories, references to hardware, links, and inter-process communicators. Believe it or not, directories are simply lists of files, links are files that tell where other files are, and those file in /dev contain information about the connected peripherals.
Unlike other operating systems, Linux distributions tend to have many partitions on a disk instead of a single one in order to have more data security. In case something happens to a partition, not all data is lost. There are various worst-case scenarios, such as a partition being completely filled up, bad blocks, etc.
Example: print command in parted
Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 21.5GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Number Start End Size Type filesystem Flags
1 32.3kB 20.5GB 20.5GB primary ext3 boot
2 20.5GB 21.5GB 938MB extended
5 20.5GB 21.5GB 938MB logical linux-swap
As can be seen, there are usually at least two partitions in a Linux system: a primary data partition (at least one root partition, indicated by /, that holds system files) and a swap partition, which serves as extra physical memory (this allows the system to continuously work without running out of memory). In some cases, usually based on your sysadmin’s choice, separate kernel, home, or program partitions are created upon installation. This is, again, to make sure that data is always kept intact if something bad happens.
Also, Linux supports various types of filesystems, such as its natives ext3 and ext2, along with those found natively in other operating systems, such as FAT or NTFS.
Partition mounting occurs when the mount command is used to attach a partition to a directory in the root filesystem. This way, the partition can be manipulated as a separate directory without messing with the system partition. The /etc/fstab file defines which partitions should be mounted on startup.
The df (“disk full”) command, under GNU/Linux distributions, has a . (dot) command that tells you what non-swap partition the working directory (remember pwd?) is on. If you’re familiar with Linux, you should be aware that this dot returns the pwd. However, it prints some information that is not always useful, so the -h option that allows for a more readable listing of information.
$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 19G 2.3G 16G 13% /
tmpfs 252M 0 252M 0% /lib/init/rw
varrun 252M 104K 252M 1% /var/run
varlock 252M 0 252M 0% /var/lock
udev 252M 2.7M 249M 2% /dev
tmpfs 252M 160K 251M 1% /dev/shm
By listing the root directory, one would see the following directories:
bin: programs shared by all of the system’s users
boot: kernel and other essential boot files, such as a bootloader
dev: references to all peripheral hardware
etc: system configuration files
home: users’ personal files
initrd: info on booting, not on all distros, not always dir
lib: the system library (files necessary for programs to run)
lost+found:files not saved correctly
mnt: mount point for external peripherals and filesystems
net: mount point for networked filesystems
opt: typically for third-party software
proc: a virtual filesystem for system resources (man proc)
root: home for the sysadmin
sbin: sysadmin’s version of bin
tmp: temporary directory, emptied on boot
usr: programs, libraries, documentation, images, etc*
var: stores variable files for temporary use by applications
Remember, though, that filesystems are not trees, although they may seem like so. Directories are simply files that list other files. In filesystems, files are represented by an inode, a “serial number” that contains the information about the data in a file, such as:
timestamps (that is, when it was created, last modified)
number of links (remember, links are just files) to it
its size (in pure kilobytes! try running df without -h and you’ll see what I mean)
its location (again, don’t imagine UNIX filesystems as trees! This portion of the inode simply says which directory file references this file!)
Be careful, though: not all filesystems have alike. Not all have inodes, many have limits on how many directories can be inside another directory, etc.
It was released a minute ago.
A few days after Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex was released, I decided to give it a test drive in my trial of VMware Fusion. I was hoping for an awesome new experience, like I got back in the days of Gutsy Gibbon, but I didn’t get an Intrepid Ibex. Just a Featureless Ibex.
This has probably been around since one of the first version of Word on any platform (I’ve seen this a lot of times), and I still don’t get why it exists.
One month after the next-gen MacBook’s introduction (14 October), the new model has not arrived in Brazil. If Apple wants to keep an international business in good shape, I would expect they’d want to keep all their products updated, instead of offering previous-generation computers in some countries.